|Air & Environment|
Air Pollution & Climate Change
Dramatic weather patterns in the past few years are convincing even determined skeptics that something is happening to global climates. Humans have changed planet earth. One of our accomplishments is to extract and burn much of the fossil fuel deposits on the planet. We have increased the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and are now observing the changes in weather patterns and climate that are a result of our actions.
Greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). These gases act like the glass covering a greenhouse, letting sunlight in but blocking some of the infrared radiation from the earth's surface that carries heat back into space. The gases act like a blanket wherever their concentration increases. Local concentrations increase local heat and increased differences between hotter and colder regions drives weather events into more extreme ranges. Over many years, the total amount of greenhouse gases accumulated and the average temperature of the whole planet is increasing. The planet's thermostat had been set at a pleasant average temperature of 59 degrees (F) for the last 10 thousand years or so and is now rising.
In our view, the main concern should be the effect of heat retention on local climates right now. It is possible to imagine increasingly anomalous weather and increasing loss of life and property from greenhouse gas accumulation with little or no change in the average temperature of the planet, although, we do expect slow progressive increase in average temperatures.
Complex Systems The attempt to understand complex systems has taken a quantum leap in recent years. We have gone beyond naïve linear models and now appreciate that if complex systems such as the atmosphere, the oceans, and land ecosystems change, they may become unstable and more unfriendly. Extra heat will cause more turbulence, and weather patterns will change in unpredictable ways. Unfortunately nature changes in abrupt ways and catastrophes are natural phenomena - volcanic eruptions, storms, floods, earthquakes, avalanches all represent basic patterns of nature. We have to understand that our actions contribute to weather events - the issues loom large when you consider recent climate changes as adverse consequences of human activities that could be improved if humans agreed on a proper course of action. Of course, human have great difficulty reaching agreements and greater difficulty sustaining agreements they have achieved.
Differential Effects Most Important Too much attention has been paid to estimating and predicting the average temperature increase of the atmosphere as a whole. Long-term predictions are guesses that may be misleading. The main concern is the effect of extra heat on local climates right now. If you track anomalous and destructive weather over the whole planet, there is already substantial evidence of climate change; there may some benefits, but, overall, the changes look unpleasant and costly.
So far, increasingly anomalous weather and increasing loss of life and property from greenhouse gas accumulation are occurring with small changes in the average temperature of the planet. You can increase the temperature in some areas and decrease in others and you can alternate - the differential effect will drive storms and precipitation in unusual ways. Increased adverse weather events can be explained as an exaggerated differential effect. We built a greenhouse with gases over much of the Pacific Ocean, for example, and put up heat shields in other areas - smoke, other particles and water vapor. The temperature differences increase, followed by more weather extremes. Loss of life and property from adverse weather increases. There is no need to wait until 2050 to find out what is going to happen.
Weather in its simplest form is the expression of heating and cooling effects. When wind blows the roof off a house or a flood carries the house downstream, the energy required was supplied by the sun. The energy may have been stored briefly in the water of a lake or ocean and then expressed through heating of the water and air and evaporation of water. Air moves when there is a pressure gradient, another result of heating and cooling. The water vapor content of the atmosphere will increase in a warmer world. With more water vapor in the atmosphere and an increase in sea surface temperatures, there will be increased precipitation at times and more vigorous storms and floods. Water is in constant motion in the oceans. Air and water vapor are in constant motion in the atmosphere. When patterns of distribution change, ecosystems change. Humans experience these changes as threats to their comfort and security and ultimately to their survival.
Global warming refers to average temperatures, measured over decades. temperature measurement obviously vary with location and seasons. Warming simply means that the earth retains more of the sun's heat over time. Heat drives weather and increased heat means increased water and turbulence in the atmosphere. The consequences are determined by the distribution of this extra heat and its effect on ocean and air circulation patterns. We can accept paradoxical weather results as the extra heat makes climate systems more unstable. The most obvious effect of warming is the melting of ice in Arctic, Antarctic and high mountain glaciers. Ice monitoring has become an important scientific enterprise. Measurements to date reveal accelerating ice melting. The extra fresh water is added to the ocean, raising ocean levels with important changes in ocean circulation patterns. The redistribution of retained heat depends more on the oceans than on the atmosphere.
A model of heat dynamics that has emerged from a high tech,
multidisciplinary study of the planet is complex. Important players in
atmospheric dynamics are:
Hurricanes, tornadoes, and heavy flooding rains continue to cause havoc in the USA. While some Americans have a paranoid fear of terrorist, extreme weather events cause more costly damage, more often than any terrorist could imagine. Pacific hurricanes (aka cyclones) create increasing damage and death in the Pacific Islands and the costal areas of Asia and Australia. Pacific (aka Tropical) cyclones cause large waves, heavy rain, flood and high winds,. The storm surge cause damage to coastal communities and causes 90% of tropical cyclone deaths. Over the past two centuries, tropical cyclones have been responsible for the deaths of about 1.9 million people worldwide. Large areas of standing water caused by flooding lead to infection, as well as contributing to mosquito-borne illnesses. When ocean water floods the land, salts are left behind. Increased salinity levels in surface water makes it undrinkable and increased salt in water and soils is toxic to plants.
NASA Earth Monitoring
In the USA, NASA provides rich resources of earth monitoring information from their satellite
sensors. The NASA website Global Climate Change presents an extensive
collection of global warming resources for media, educators, weathercasters and
public speakers. “ Highlights of
their measurements (2016):” Global sea level rose about 17 centimeters (6.7
inches) in the last century. The rate in the last decade, however, is nearly
double that of the last century. All three major global surface temperature
reconstructions show that Earth has warmed since 1880.5 Most of this warming has
occurred since the 1970s, with the 20 warmest years having occurred since 1981
and with all 10 of the warmest years occurring in the past 12 years. Even though
the 2000s witnessed a solar output decline resulting in an unusually deep solar
minimum in 2007-2009, surface temperatures continue to increase.
Both the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice has declined rapidly over the last several decades. Glaciers are retreating almost everywhere around the world — including in the Alps, Himalayas, Andes, Rockies, Alaska and Africa. The number of record high temperature events in the United States has been increasing, while the number of record low temperature events has been decreasing, since 1950. The U.S. has also witnessed increasing numbers of intense rainfall events. Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the acidity of surface ocean waters has increased by about 30 percent. This increase is the result of humans emitting more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and hence more being absorbed into the oceans. The amount of carbon dioxide absorbed by the upper layer of the oceans is increasing by about 2 billion tons per year. Satellite observations reveal that the amount of spring snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere has decreased over the past five decades and that the snow is melting earlier. “
Green Developments in the media made "green" the slogan for action to limit the adverse effects of human degradations of the environment. The media often suggested that this is a relatively new consensus that there is an environmental crisis. They excused people who have ignored the effect of greenhouse gases on climates global warming over the past 30 years. Some know what is really going on out there, but most people do not know or know but deny the obvious for selfish reasons. Green refers to the color of chlorophyll in plants. Human action destroys plants and replaces healthy ecosystems with concrete and asphalt. Another slogan that emerged was "save planet earth." Humans will not save the planet. The task for humans is to stop destroying the environments that sustain humans. If we fail, the planet will do just fine without us.
UV radiation The reduction in forest biomass and reduction of ocean plankton from heat and exposure to increased UV radiation are also concerns. Ocean phytoplankton supplies 70% of the oxygen we breathe and is a major consumer of carbon dioxide. Plankton do best in cold water. If ocean temperatures increase and other problems such as increased UV radiation from ozone holes kills phytoplankton, the problems we are predicting will accelerate.
Ecosystems are precariously balanced around temperature, pH, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations. The adaptive range for many organisms is tight and small changes can have big results. It may be that we can adapt to the changes that have occurred so far but we may have already gone too far and will encounter the big avalanche. The negative consequences of our actions may escalate beyond our control.
Insurance companies are either increasing rates, out of business, worried, or refusing coverage for properties at risk. Hurricane Andrew caused 16.5 billion dollars in insured loses, bankrupting some smaller insurance companies. The UN panel on climate change has estimated that windstorm damage increased from $500 million in the 60's to over $11 billion in the 90's and the annual bill in the 21st century may be hundreds of billions of dollars per year. Before 1987, storms had never caused insured loses exceeding $1 billion. Hurricane Andrew destroyed over 28,000 homes in August 1992. Hurricanes Jeanne, Ivan, Frances and Charley in 2004 destroyed 27,500 housing units. The Southern US was attacked by 17 major storms during the 2005 hurricane season., Hurricane Katrina did extensive damage in August 2005 to the Gulf coast of the US. Early damage cost were estimated at $150 billion, the worst natural disaster in U.S. history. Hurricane Rita soon followed on Sept 24 and became the most intense hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico but caused less damage, because it made landfall in less populated areas -- no consolation to the people in Texas and Louisiana who suffered a direct hit. Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 damaged a wide swath of the east coast and became the second-costliest hurricane in United States history. Estimates as of 2015 assessed damage to have been about $75 billion, a total surpassed only by Hurricane Katrina. At least 233 people were killed along the path of the storm in eight countries.
Political action should swift and definitive, but of course, it is not. Politicians are short-term administrators who tend to be inexperienced and poorly informed. In all fairness to politicians, some of them began their careers with high hopes of improving the world, but discovered as they matured in politics that they could only court the favor of those with vested interests, power, money and influence. The realist might say that the politician can only do what is political expedient and this usually means what is in his or her best interest in the next two to four years. The task of leading fellow Homo Sapiens from a self-destructive path requires an intelligent consensus and leadership from compassionate superheroes who think in terms of centuries, even millenia.
According to Maurice Strong who headed the 1992 Rio Earth Summit stated; "Overall we haven't made the fundamental course of change promised in Rio. The process of deterioration has continued and the forces that drive that deterioration have continued. " At that summit 153 nations signed treaties to reduce global warming, save endangered species and foster sustainable development.
In his opening address to the UN Climate Summit in 2014, secretary-general Ban Ki-Moon warned the dreams of humanity hung in the balance. "To ride this storm we need all hands on deck. The human environmental and financial cost of climate change is fast becoming unbearable." Dr Rajendra Pachauri the chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated: "Time was running out. How can we leave our children with a world like this? "I'm not sure if I could stand before you if the threats of climate change had no solutions, but they do. We already have the means to build a better, more sustainable world... renewable energy is a real option."
US president Barack Obama said despite the present threats of terrorism, instability and disease, climate change would define the contours of the century more dramatically than any other issue. This challenge demands our ambition. Our children deserve such ambition. Today I call on all countries to join us - not next year or the year after that but right now - because no nation can meet this global threat alone."
Several countries pledged to cut CO2 emissions. China, the world's largest emitter, reiterated its goal to cut carbon intensity by 40 to 45 per cent of 2005 levels by 2020. The next formal round of talks in Peru at the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, countries l presented their plans for emission reductions . Nearly 200 countries have pledged to reach agreement in Paris at the end of 2015 on a climate pact for carbon cuts beyond 2020.
Paris 2015 climate meeting was attended by 195 countries and a non-binding agreement was reached to limit global warming to 2 degrees C by reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Despite a celebratory ending and optimistic speeches by USA president Obama and others, the prospect of 195 countries developing unprecedented, sustained cooperation seems remote or impossible. The challenge is to phase out fossil fuel dependence which requires great wealth, determination and technological sophistication to achieve.