Emotions and Feelings


For Me Ness

Some Topics

  • Reward and Punishment
  • The deepest dialectic in the mind is approach and avoidance. Objects of desire are approached. Objects of fear are avoided. Rewards and punishments drive approach and avoidance. Pleasure and pain are feeling states that express feelings attached to reward and punishment. Higher level planning is built on a foundation of innate drives XE "Desires" . The basic vocabulary of drives involves body needs felt as desires, rehearsed as fantasies and expressed as goal-oriented behavior. The outside view is that humans are driven to find rewards, gratifications of basic body needs. If you are optimistic, the world out there looks promising and you head out on a search for rewards, things that will please you. The human brain is an amplifier that turns small signals in large effects. The energy required to work every day is considerable. The signals inside the brain that organize the work and keep the sequence going day after day are minute

    Anticipatory states involve recognizing the body need and organizing a behavior sequence to satisfy that need. Hunger is the feeling; appetite is the drive, hunting for food is the seeking behavior, eating is the consuming behavior and satiety is the feeling of gratification that follows. Eating food involves pleasurable sensations, mostly in the mouth and internal chemical signals that regulate brain states. Humans use a variety of words to describe the complete experience of searching for and finding things we need or believe we need: “I like. I need. I wish. I want. I love. I have to have. I need to have. I hope. I desire. My dream is to… My goal is to…” These words reveal a progression from the first rumblings of need inside the body to the consummation of the drive.

    Humans have a small number of essential needs and a large number of derivative, non-essential needs. Animal needs propel us into the world in search of gratification. As we approach our goal, avoidance programs emerge and we become more alert, cautious and are ready to flee to avoid illness, injury and death. Positive feelings are associated with seeking behaviors that encourage us to find good food, clean water, safe places to rest and nice to people to share all of the above. Yang and Shadlen suggested; ‘”Our brains allow us to reason about alternatives and to make choices that are likely to pay off. Often there is no one correct answer, but instead, one that is favored simply because it is more likely to lead to reward. We show that rhesus monkeys can also achieve such reasoning. We have trained two monkeys to choose between a pair of colored targets after viewing four shapes, shown sequentially, that governed the probability that one of the targets would furnish reward. Monkeys learned to combine probabilistic information from the shape combinations. Moreover, neurons in the parietal cortex reveal the addition and subtraction of probabilistic quantities that underlie decision-making on this task.” [i]

    Animal learning is based on establishing enduring memories of rewards and punishment. The most tenacious memories are formed when punishment follows an action. Rewards are generally weaker and must be repeated to form an enduring memory. Chemical rewards such as alcohol or heroin are powerful and can quickly establish recurrent drives and approach behaviors that are difficult to extinguish. The close linking of a behavior to a reward or punishment is “conditioning.” While humans are strongly conditioned and often act like programmed robots, another level of anticipatory planning, risk assessment and strategic self-control can provide more optional behaviors that suggest “free will.” Humans regulate each others' behavior with rewards and punishments. Affiliations are based on promising and then delivering rewards. Children are trained buy offering rewards or threatening punishments. Cooperation is achieved by a combination of rewards and sanctions against group members who fail to deliver rewards or who are overly punitive. Approval is a rewarding behavior that is based on protective nurturing behavior. Angry disapproval is a punishment.

    [i] Tianming Yang & Michael N. Shadlen. Probabilistic reasoning by neurons. Nature 447, 1075-1080 (28 June 2007) | doi:10.1038/nature05852 Published online 3 June 2007


      Emotions and Feelings

    • This book investigates the for-me-ness of experiences, using psychology, neuroscience and philosophy. Everyone has some idea what emotions and feelings are but their exact nature is elusive. We can begin by noting that emotions and feelings are not the same. Generally, humans are ignorant of internal processes and invent all manner of imaginary and irrelevant explanations to explain feelings. The term “emotion” is best used to point to animal and human behavior. There are a small number of primary emotions and variations that involve mixtures of emotional displays feelings and behaviors. Joy, anger, fear and pain are pure emotions. Other, more complex and derivative experiences act as interfaces to emotions. Love, jealousy and hate are not emotions. These are descriptions of complex interactions and evaluations that involve a range of feelings and interface to true emotions some of the time. Euphoria is the benefit of being in love. Sadness and anger are the cost of being in love. Jealousy, like love, is another complex of cognitions, feelings and emotions that exist to monitor and regulate close relationships. The absence of emotional display is highly valued in polite society. Humans have advanced toward civil and productive social environments that are emotionally neutral. Emotional neutrality is a requirement for acceptable behavior in school and work environments.

      Emotions and Feelings is available as an eBook download. The book is intended for a well-educated smart reader who is interested in Human Nature and the daily experience of humans in groups. The author is Stephen Gislason

         Download eBook


      Order Persona Books

      Alpha Online downloads eBooks and also ships printed books to the US and Canada. Click download buttons below to order eBook downloads from Alpha Online. Three book are available as printed editions.   Click the book titles to read topics from each book.

      Print Books Read Topics Download
      Human Nature
      The Good Person
      Pieces of the Puzzle
      The Sound of Music
      Surviving Human Nature
      Language and Thinking
      I and Thou
      Emotions, Feelings
      Neuroscience Notes
      Human Brain
      Children & Family
      Intelligence & Learning
      Religion 21st Century

      Persona Digital

      The Psychology, Philosophy, Neuroscience series of books was developed by Persona Digital. The books are copyright and all rights to reproduction by any means are reserved. We encourage readers to quote and paraphrase topics from Emotions and Feelings 2018, published online, and expect proper citations to accompany all derivative writings. The author is Stephen Gislason and the publisher is Persona Digital Books, Sechelt, B.C. Canada. 95 Pages.


    Emotions and Feelings

  • This book investigates the for-me-ness of experiences, using psychology, neuroscience and philosophy. Everyone has some idea what emotions and feelings are but their exact nature is elusive. We can begin by noting that emotions and feelings are not the same. Generally, humans are ignorant of internal processes and invent all manner of imaginary and irrelevant explanations to explain feelings. The term “emotion” is best used to point to animal and human behavior. There are a small number of primary emotions and variations that involve mixtures of emotional displays feelings and behaviors. Joy, anger, fear and pain are pure emotions. Other, more complex and derivative experiences act as interfaces to emotions. Love, jealousy and hate are not emotions. These are descriptions of complex interactions and evaluations that involve a range of feelings and interface to true emotions some of the time. Euphoria is the benefit of being in love. Sadness and anger are the cost of being in love. Jealousy, like love, is another complex of cognitions, feelings and emotions that exist to monitor and regulate close relationships. The absence of emotional display is highly valued in polite society. Humans have advanced toward civil and productive social environments that are emotionally neutral. Emotional neutrality is a requirement for acceptable behavior in school and work environments.

    Emotions and Feelings is intended for a well-educated smart reader who is interested in Human Nature and the daily experience of humans in groups. The author is Stephen Gislason Both Print editions and eBooks for download are available from Alpha Online

       Download eBook


    Order Persona Books

    Alpha Online downloads eBooks and also ships printed books to the US and Canada. Click download buttons below to order eBook downloads from Alpha Online. Three book are available as printed editions.   Click the book titles to read topics from each book.

    Print Books Read Topics Download
    Human Nature
    The Good Person
    Pieces of the Puzzle
    The Sound of Music
    Surviving Human Nature
    Language and Thinking
    I and Thou
    Emotions, Feelings
    Neuroscience Notes
    Human Brain
    Children & Family
    Intelligence & Learning
    Religion 21st Century

    Persona Digital

    The Psychology, Philosophy, Neuroscience series of books was developed by Persona Digital. The books are copyright and all rights to reproduction by any means are reserved. We encourage readers to quote and paraphrase topics from Emotions and Feelings 2017, published online, and expect proper citations to accompany all derivative writings. The author is Stephen Gislason and the publisher is Persona Digital Books, Sechelt, B.C. Canada.