Breathe Clean Air Air and Breathing

Lung Diseases

Air Quality

Some Topics


Air pressure, stratosphere,troposphere, ozone

The Atmosphere

The atmosphere of the earth is a thin, layered collection of gases, water vapor and particles. Most living creatures live in the atmosphere. The troposphere is the surface layer of air that absorbs visible sunlight. Heating, cooling, and water evaporation in the troposphere are expressed as weather.

The weight of air around an object exerts pressure. At sea-level the weight of air molecules above each square inch is about 14.7 pounds. Air pressure varies with temperature and weather patterns are described in terms of low pressure fronts interacting with higher pressure fronts.

The air thins as you ascend above the Earth; air pressure and temperature drops. The stratosphere begins at about 12 miles altitude at the equator; about 5 miles at the poles. Solar ultraviolet radiation is absorbed by oxygen and ozone. The "ozone layer" is about 30 miles high; 90% is located within 10 miles above the Earth's surface. The atmosphere thins progressively in the mesosphere, the outer layer that extend to 53 miles altitude. Atmospheric gases eventually disappear into relatively empty, cold space.

Stratospheric ozone absorbs ultraviolet sunlight providing heat and protection for living creatures in the lower atmosphere. At the Earth's surface, ozone from human industry is toxic. In the 20th century, it became obvious that gases created by human activity changed the chemical composition of the troposphere and stratosphere with negative impacts on human survival. Large ozone holes appeared over the Antarctic and the Arctic Polar regions. Smaller areas of ozone depletion were recorded over other, more-populated regions of the Earth.

Increases in surface UV-B radiation have been recorded wherever stratospheric ozone was depleted. A scientific consensus was reached that human-produced chemicals were responsible for ozone depletion. Combinations of volatile chemicals containing chlorine, fluorine, bromine, carbon, and hydrogen were responsible; carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform were used in refrigeration, air conditioning, and as solvents. Halons, which contain carbon, bromine, fluorine, and chlorine were also implicated. An international agreement was achieved so that many governments outlawed CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform.

Learn about GreenHouse Gases

Learn About Aerosols

World Meteorological Organization/United Nations Environment Programme report, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998 (WMO Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project-Report No. 44, Geneva, 1999).

  • Discussions of Environmental Science and Human Ecology were developed by Environmed Research Inc. Sechelt, B.C. Canada. Online Topics were developed from two books,
    Air and Breathing and The Environment.

  • Air and Breathing helps you understand breathing, respiratory diseases, air quality issues, airborne infections and other causes of breathing disorders. You will find detailed information about the respiratory tract, atmosphere, air pollution, airborne infection, air quality allergy, lung diseases and airborne hazards at home.
    Air and Breathing eBook Edition for Download.

    The Environment

    In the 2017 book, The Environment, you will find detailed information about the weather, climate change, soils, forests, energy sources, oceans, the atmosphere, air pollution, climate change, air quality and the politics of the environment. The Environment is available as a Printed book or as an eBook Edition for download.

      Download The Environment as an eBook

    The Author Stephen J. Gislason MD

    Food Causes

    Not all respiratory diseases are caused by airborne pathogens. If asthma, bronchitis and/or nose sinus congestion is chronic or attacks occur frequently in all seasons and are not related to airborne exposure, then consider delayed pattern food allergy as the cause and do diet revision using the Alpha Nutrition Program.

    Alpha Education Book Orders

    Click Add to Cart buttons to begin an order for mail delivery (US and Canada). All books can be downloaded as PDF files. Click the Download buttons to order eBooks for download. Pay by Pay Pal for immediate download. Click the book titles (center column) to read topics from each book.

    Print Books Read Topics Download
    Alpha Nutrition Program
    Aching and Fatigue
    Air and Breathing
      Alpha Nutrition Cooking
    Alcohol Problems 
    Gluten Problems 
    Managing Diabetes 2
      Eating and Weight
    Skin Disease
    Feeding Children
      Human Brain
    Food Allergy
    Digestive Disorders
      Food Choices
    Heart & Arterial Disease
      Immunology Notes
    Inflammatory Arthritis
    Nutrition Notes

    Google Search Alpha Online

    Alpha Online

    alpha online

    Alpha Online is a Web Site developed by Environmed Research Inc. Sechelt, B.C., Canada. Online Since 1995. Orders for printed books, eBooks and nutrient formulas are placed at Alpha Online. Alpha Nutrition is a registered trademark of Environmed Research Inc.